Saltar para: Posts [1], Pesquisa [2]

... coisas do Sherpas!!!...

... comentários sobre tudo, sobre nada... imagens diversas, o que aprecio, críticas e aplausos, entre outras coisas mais!!!...

... coisas do Sherpas!!!...

... comentários sobre tudo, sobre nada... imagens diversas, o que aprecio, críticas e aplausos, entre outras coisas mais!!!...

11
Jun10

Anish Kapoor's Temenos sculpture shows how uncool Britain is

sherpas

Rhapsodising about Kapoor's impressive but deeply conventional sculptures reveals how little we understand about contemporary art

 

... in http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/jonathanjonesblog/2010/jun/10/anish-kapoor-sculpture-temenos-art

 

Anish Kapoor's colonisation of British public space continues. Today in Middlesbrough he unveiled Temenos, a huge web of steel wires slung between two giant hoops – the first of five grandly scaled sculptures he is to create in the north-east. At the same time, he is of course very much in the news for his winning bid to design a monumental viewing tower for the London Olympics. As the success, fame and apparent popularity of this artist continue to grow, is there still room for a dissident voice?

 

They say you never forget the passions of your youth – a truth revealed by the Father's Day displays of Joy Division albums that appear in record shops at this time of year – but I think you never forget what once bored you, either. Or at least I can't. That is why I'm fated to be the moaning spectre at the feast of Anish Kapoor's fame.

 

My problem is that, as a student, I saw Kapoor's early work in an exhibition at Kettle's Yard in Cambridge: simple forms decorated with brilliantly coloured pigments. They weren't bad, but they didn't mean very much to me. At the time my favourite contemporary artist was Steve Bell, whose cartoons in the Guardian mattered because they were about Thatcher's Britain, where we unfortunately lived. Aside from that, I was reading novelists like Alasdair Gray and Martin Amis. But contemporary British art? It seemed very cosy and safe.

 

In 1992, I walked into the Saatchi gallery and saw a tiger shark swimming towards me through a tank of formaldehyde. For the first time, a living British artist had me by the short and curlies. I am the same age as Damien Hirst and he spoke to me of my life, my feelings, my world – where that of Kapoor had glided past without moving me at all.

Here we are, two decades on, and Kapoor has successfully got his red, horn-shaped surfboard onto the wave Hirst created. While critics now deplore Hirst, we're scared to say anything bad about Kapoor for fear of alienating his many fans. But the truth is that Anish Kapoor is a very ordinary, conventional artist – an art teacher's idea of a radical. His art exhibits a colossal lack of anxiety about its own value, indeed about art's value. He's the artistic equivalent of the first-class honours student who gets a top job straight from uni and never looks back – the artist as an establishment man.

 

His sculptures do not frighten the horses. They are essentially decorative, often gorgeously so, but they lack all profundity. Compare his use of colour with Mark Rothko's purple murals in the Tate Modern and you will see the difference between Kapoor and a great artist.

 

The British have discovered modern art, but do we actually have any sense of what modern art is or what it can be – its true danger, bite and depth? The lesson of Anish Kapoor's triumph is that we are still, at heart, a deeply uncool nation.

 

... soberbos... CRIATIVOS!!!... Sherpas!!!...

 

{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.sol}{#emotions_dlg.sol}{#emotions_dlg.sol}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.smile}

10
Jun10

... emigrando... pois então!!!...

sherpas

… estamos regredindo, pelos vistos,
quando os vejo, embalando parcos haveres,
bem tristonhos, escorraçados, não queridos,
costas curvas, desgostados, pobres seres,
falta de esperança, sem perspectivas,
cansados de procurarem saídas,
num buraco sem solução,
com um bocado, noutro lado, promissor,
uma tarefa, trabalho compensador,
País mistificador, enganador,
que te debilitas,
que mais débil ficas,
quando os deixas fugir,
sem tugir, nem mugir,
ripanço dos bem forrados,
dos negociadores, dos embolsados,
dos senhores dos dinheiros,
insignificância, bem reles,
dos que, por usanças, por meios,
por escassez provocada, bem legal,
só pensam na vida deles,
fazendo de Portugal,
um inferno insuportável,
ganância, hipocrisia inenarrável,
falta de valores, no mesmo rumo,
partido único, mais que igual,
vamos regredindo… enquanto me consumo!!!...

… vai para quarenta e tantos anos,
a caminho da França, da Alemanha,
doutros sítios, bem distantes,
longínquos, afastados,
lugares inteiros, despejados,
escorraçados por elites, antanhos,
logros, roubos, quanta manha,
procissão de desgraçados,
a salto, de qualquer maneira,
passavam a fronteira,
tristes, esfomeados,
procurando o seu destino,
com ânsia e voragem ilimitadas,
fugindo dos latifúndios, das penúrias,
dos cinzentos do momento,
das carteiras recheadas,
com mala de cartão, com saudade,
enrijecidos, sem lamúrias,
com um só pensamento,
numa busca incessante, da verdade,
vida digna, passagens espúrias,
isolamento, sofrimento,
trambolhões, lá longe, bem distante,
tanto agora… como dantes!!!...

… escravos modernos, em Países parceiros,
exploração aviltante, quanta degradação,
saída, única solução,
para quem é obrigado, pelo pão,
atrás duma visão, procurando sendeiros,
outros caminhos, uma salvação,
ilusionados, bem escorraçados,
nesta outra regressão, nova versão,
duma casa que não abriga, que afugenta,
quantos lutam, não se intenta,
desfazendo lares, provocando saudades,
sem mala de cartão, com alguma impressão,
enganados por cá, por lá,
indiferente, tanto faz,
numa Europa que não nos pertence,
que maltrata muita gente,
neste pedaço que nos ludibria,
com logros, muita fantasia,
que nos quer ofertar, quem nos tenta enganar,
porque, meus amigos,
num local com alguns ricos,
podres, a rebentar, os tais, os de espantar,
quantos e quantos… têm de emigrar???... Sherpas!!!...

 

{#emotions_dlg.confused}{#emotions_dlg.mad}{#emotions_dlg.sad}{#emotions_dlg.portugal}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.santarem}{#emotions_dlg.aveiro}{#emotions_dlg.portalegre}{#emotions_dlg.beja}

09
Jun10

... vazio!!!...

sherpas

... um banco vazio na rua que passa,
lugar na cama dum velho em desgraça,
num muro que separa, uma grade de ferro,
tranca na porta, silêncio, desterro,
esplanada sem som, cadeiras viradas,
empregado lá dentro esperando momento,
balcão que s´alonga, copos q´aguardam
líquidos parados, conteúdos sem fluidos,
refeição que não serve,
não come, não bebe,
vinho que descansa, não jorra,
não chora,
lamento sem fim, destino de gente,

corpo que fenece, dia que começa,
vida diferente,
percurso traçado, caminho já gasto,
na fronte, desenho, uma ruga bem funda,
na carta q´escrevo, não envio,
repasto,
enjoo que sinto, sentado, atento,
não páro, não entro,

lugar insensato, controverso, marasmo,
janela da frente, rompante, desafio,
voo rasante, latido,
pássaro veloz, um cão sarnento,
queixume q´exala, ambiente vazio,

ausência no instante, tão denso,
bafiento,
desculpa, movimento a custo, intento,
sem pio,

toada que surge,
esparsa que ruge,
sorriso q´irrompe,
conversa escondida,
palavras que rolam, pessoas que vão,
conjuntos que são,
cadeiras q´arrastam, viragem na certa,
na porta que s´abre,
célere, tão servil,
empregado que s´incorpora,
direito, na hora,

bandeja na mão, atento ao pedido,
presteza no serviço, com gosto,
com viço,
balcão bem composto,
com vinhos, com copos,
são fluidos, ruídos, sinais que ressurgem,
dão vida, eclodem,
dinamizam, explodem,
num banco já cheio, na rua formosa,
rapariga dengosa,
rapaz q´aprecia,

um velho no leito,
lugar q´ainda ocupa,
repara, introverte, ainda vive... implora,
partida q´adia, lugar bem diferente,
pássaro q´evola, cão enrolado,
sarnento, ausente,

envelhecido, sem dono,
são marcas, são dolos
amargos, são logros,
quando me disponho... componho!!!... Sherpas!!!...

 

{#emotions_dlg.confused}{#emotions_dlg.mad}{#emotions_dlg.sad}{#emotions_dlg.portugal}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.santarem}{#emotions_dlg.aveiro}{#emotions_dlg.portalegre}{#emotions_dlg.beja}

09
Jun10

Tintoretto masterpiece is revealed - but restorers still don't get the picture

sherpas

An absolutely filthy painting that hung for decades in the sorry gloom of a stately home's backstairs will today be confirmed as a work of enormous art historical significance. But in revealing the work as a hidden masterpiece by the Renaissance superstar Tintoretto, restorers have also unlocked a larger, more intriguing mystery.

 

... in http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2010/jun/09/tintoretto-painting-restored-kingston-lacy

 

The painting came into the National Trust's possession when it took over the 17th century Dorset mansion Kingston Lacy in 1981. While it was thought to be a Tintoretto, it was so over-varnished and dirty that it could not be confirmed. Lacking the money to restore it, the trust put the painting into storage.

 

Today the painting will be revealed in all its wondrous restored glory and go on public display for the first time. At the same time, experts admit they are baffled by much of the painting's content and are enlisting help in unlocking a series of classical puzzles.

 

"It is hugely exciting," said Amanda Bradley, the trust's deputy curator of pictures. "The thing is, it's such an enormously beautiful thing to look at as well as being so important in art historical terms."

 

The painting was acquired by the Victorian art collector and explorer William Bankes in 1849. Bankes, a good friend of Byron, was travelling and living in Italy, more or less in exile because of his penchant for men, uniforms and parks. "He bought it as a Tintoretto and he had a pretty good eye but there were things he bought that turned out not to be what he thought they were," said Bradley.

When the National Trust took over the Bankes family home it also took on its contents, including the huge oil painting on the backstairs known as Apollo and the Muses. "It wasn't in a desperately bad condition when we acquired it, it was just very, very dirty, you could hardly make the figures out," said Bradley.

 

Because of the doubtful provenance and the expense of restoring it, the painting has since been in storage, hovering near the top of the trust's must-do list. Now extensive conservation at the Hamilton Kerr Institute in Cambridgeshire has restored the painting to its original glory. And what glory. Alistair Laing, the trust's curator of paintings, called it "undoubtedly a work of great significance", adding: "To have a painting by Tintoretto in an English house, rather than still in its original location in Venice, or in an Italian museum, is extraordinary."

 

What adds to the fascination is that, despite consultation with people who know these things, experts are puzzled by so much of what is going on. All of it might be deduced if it was known who commissioned it. Not exactly the Da Vinci code, but at least the Tintoretto code.

 

The main figure might be Apollo, or it might be Hymen, the Greek god of marriage. The man draped in blue might be a poet who is being presented to his spouse, the rather pale lady – or he might not be. What is the die with the five dots, underneath the woman draped in red, all about? What is the significance of all the gold? That must be Hercules in the top left but who is everyone else? Is it, perhaps, Fortune, above the die?

In the meantime the painting, probably from the 1560s or 1570s, has been renamed as "Apollo (or Hymen) crowning a poet and giving him a spouse", but Bradley said that was something like its fifth name in the last few months. "The name will probably have to change again. I would personally say it's definitely Apollo but I'm not even sure he's marrying someone – my boss and I are agreeing to differ on that."

 

The x-ray and infrared analysis used to prove it is definitely the work of Tintoretto also throws up questions. Why, for example, did Tintoretto paint the possible poet as nearly naked before the blue robes were later added?

 

The trust is hoping curious classicists might be among the first visitors to see the painting, 8ft 10in by 7ft 9in (270cm by 236cm), as it now hangs in the Kingston Lacy dining room after its £36,000 makeover.

Tintoretto, along with Titian and Veronese, is one of the three Venetian giants from the Renaissance. This painting is also a rarity because he took on so few private commissions – he is better known for his public work, not least the breathtaking, unmissable paintings at the Scuola Grande and church of San Rocco in Venice, which took him 20 years to complete.

 

Until now one of the most impressive Tintoretto works outside Venice has – perhaps surprisingly, perhaps not – been in Gateshead.

Christ Washing the Disciples' Feet hung for many years at St Nicholas's Cathedral in Newcastle before being moved over the river to the Shipley gallery in 1986.

 

{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.bouquete}{#emotions_dlg.bouquete}{#emotions_dlg.bouquete}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.sol}{#emotions_dlg.sol}{#emotions_dlg.sol}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.smile}

08
Jun10

... tempos de... descobrimentos!!!...

sherpas

… do alto daquela fraga, bem no cimo, no cume,
vi águas que se estendiam, horizontes bem distantes,
lá ao longe, ponto escuro, bem definido,
como que brilhando, vislumbre,
precisão constante, nesgas aberrantes,
algo que se demarca, uma vela, um sexto sentido,
um alvor no coração de quem espera,
uma esperança que renova, que toma forma,
vontade enorme de soltar gritos, como dantes,
um reencontro que se adivinha, naquele pedaço de terra,
uma voragem, uma vivência que retoma,
um encantamento, uma doce ilusão de quem toma,
de quem aguarda, de quem ama,
de quem chora, de quem pede, de quem clama,
de quem sossega, de quem cala, se acalma,
conforta, vendo, aguardando o momento,
do alto daquela fraga, bem no cimo, no cume,
uma nesga, um brilho… um vislumbre!!!...

… passaram meses, passaram anos,
longo afastamento, desde o instante,
hora da despedida, aquando da partida,
naquela praia repleta, senhores e amos,
marinhagem diversa, gente rude, agreste,
labutando com o cordame, hesitante,
cumprindo ordens, carregando mantimentos,
sob o olhar perspicaz do almirante,
comandante daquelas naus quinhentistas,
nos preparativos, muito activos,
com pensamentos indecisos,
separações, alimentando ilusões,
sobre as navegações, as conquistas,
viagens sem rumo certo,
aventura que se projecta, nada concreto,
longe da família, do afecto,
som das velas que enfunam,
maré de feição, vento que sopra,
apitos, corridas, gritos, choros, partidas,
de quem parte… de quem fica!!!...

… sobre águas cristalinas, deslizam,
vão sumindo, no horizonte,
alma que sofre, coração que cobra,
desapego de tantas vidas,
quanto sofrimento implica,
ainda soam, espargidas,
algumas vozes de comando, ordens,
o barulho da bujarrona, quando enfuna,
a âncora que se retira,
gritaria, choros… zumbidos,
quantos sentimentos, sentidos,
numa fúria, numa quebra… numa partida!!!...

… depois, caiu o silêncio, começou o penar,
a ausência, a falta do ser querido, amante, marido,
filho mais velho, homem do mar,
marujos sem distinção, navegando para a ilusão,
com um sonho, uma esperança, rumo incerto,
aventura para o desconhecido, uma conquista,
destino pouco concreto,
cartas de marear, informações escassas, terras ignotas,
mares infindáveis, um palpite, uma pista,
uma espera que aumenta, que degrada, faz sofrer,
de quem sente a falta, de quem aguarda,
sempre no cimo, no cume daquela fraga,
no ponto mais alto da costa, olhando o mar,
olhos vigilantes, deixando o tempo passar!!!...

… vendo barcaças, não vendo nada,
ânsia que consome, não afaga,
meses que passam, anos que culminam,
recomeçam, carregam, humilham,
até que, do alto da fraga, se vislumbra,
pequeno ponto negro, uma sombra,
um grito, uma chama, alegria intensa,
quando deixa de ser penumbra,
quando se materializa, se adensa,
se aproxima, se vê… já não pensa,
se regozija pelo momento,
cura milagrosa de tanto sofrimento,
panaceia eficaz, para tantas maleitas,
navegam sobre as águas, firmes, escorreitas,
como no dia da partida,
nunca tal coisa se viu,
que alento, que afago… para tanta vida!!!... Sherpas!!!...

 

{#emotions_dlg.confused}{#emotions_dlg.mad}{#emotions_dlg.sad}{#emotions_dlg.portugal}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.santarem}{#emotions_dlg.aveiro}{#emotions_dlg.portalegre}{#emotions_dlg.beja}

08
Jun10

... meninos e meninas... traquinas!!!...

sherpas


… como irrequietos traquinas,
à volta de bolo enorme,
meninos, meninas,
travessos, teimosos, com fome,
de habituados que estão,
esquecem o que não são,
insistem na confusão,
quando pregam, não dão,
castigando a populaça,
pobre povo, triste raça,
que a tudo se conforma,
que paga cada vez mais,
mantendo estes pardais,
numa volta que retorna,
alternados que estão, no Poder,
sai-se do engano, cai-se no mesmo,
é o que estamos a ver,
por vezes, não quero crer,
quando me aquieto, me convenço,
me torno mais prestimoso,
augurando tempos melhores,
numa pausa que intento,
neste cantinho formoso,
de crápulas, cada vez… piores!!!...

… como traquinas, como crianças,
esquecem, quando prometem,
deitam, por terra, esperanças,
não aquecem, nem arrefecem,
limpam bolsos, carteiras,
satisfazem seus caprichos,
vão saltando por fronteiras,
em viagens de pasmar,
bem forrados, com viços,
numa amálgama de bradar,
em negócios, regalias,
esquecimentos, fugas,
simples toques, só magias,
com sorrisos, remoques,
calcando sobre os tugas,
com impostos, agravamentos,
abordando sofrimentos,
distribuindo simples lamentos,
migalhas esparsas, raras,
disfarces, empolamentos,
poupando vidas… mais caras!!!...

 

<> ENTALADOS <?> LOL

 

… meninos, meninas, travessos,
bem situados, forrados,
à volta de bolos espessos,
beneficiados, como sempre,
não têm recalques, paragem,
na loucura, na voragem,
quando avançam, vão em frente,
bem pedantes, sorridentes,
satisfazendo clientes,
numa distribuição aflitiva,
perante um Povo que grita,
que não aguenta mais o saque,
constante, avassalador,
no meio da miséria, da dor,
bolso sem fundo, não findo,
quando escrevo, não minto,
sou dos que pagam, bem sinto,
perante privilégios que gozam,
quando viajam, repousam,
na doce almofada dos excelsos,
tal como dantes… perversos!!!... Sherpas!!!...

 

{#emotions_dlg.confused}{#emotions_dlg.mad}{#emotions_dlg.sad}{#emotions_dlg.portugal}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.santarem}{#emotions_dlg.aveiro}{#emotions_dlg.portalegre}{#emotions_dlg.beja}

08
Jun10

Condenação após 25 anos

sherpas

 

a condenação de oito ex-funcionários de uma subsidiária da Union Carbide Indian por um desastre industrial de 1984 que matou até 25 mil pessoas na cidade de Bhopal, na Índia, foi considerada um “insulto” por grupos que representam os sobreviventes. Trata-se da primeira condenação nos 25 anos desde o episódio, um dos maiores desastres industriais da história.

 

... in http://zerohora.clicrbs.com.br/zerohora/jsp/default2.jsp?uf=1&local=1&source=a2929654.xml&template=3898.dwt&edition=14847&section=1014

 

Os acusados, a maior parte deles na faixa dos 70 anos, receberam penas de até dois anos de prisão por terem “causado mortes por negligência” e por “homicídio culposo, sem intenção de matar”.

Eles foram libertados mediante o pagamento de fiança, e vão esperar em liberdade o resultado de um recurso à decisão. Em 2 e 3 de dezembro de 1984, nuvens de gases tóxicos que vazaram da unidade da companhia Union Carbide, situada no centro de Bhopal, mataram, inicialmente, cerca de 4 mil pessoas, número que pode ter chegado a 15 mil ao longo dos anos seguintes. Cerca de meio milhão de pessoas foram afetadas de alguma forma.

– Há um sentimento de traição, de ultraje. Não é somente muito pouco e muito tarde. É um tapa na cara daqueles que esperavam algum tipo de alívio em suas feridas – disse Nitiyanand Jayaraman, da Campanha Internacional por Justiça em Bhopal.

Os condenados também receberam multas de 100 mil rúpias cada, algo em torno de R$ 4 mil. Os representantes dos sobreviventes criticaram o trabalho da acusação, que tinha 170 testemunhas, bem como os valores das multas.

– Isso é um trocado para alguns deles. É o que eles ganham em um mês. A multa é um insulto – disse Jayaraman.

Ram Prasad, 75 anos, morador da área, disse que a sentença não era suficiente para o que ocorreu:

– Eu perdi meu filho, meu irmão mais novo e meu pai, e ainda tenho pesadelos – afirmou, ao jornal britânico The Guardian.

Há ainda uma ação separada contra a Union Carbide e seu então diretor, Warren Anderson. Anderson, que vive nos Estados Unidos, tem se negado a voltar para a Índia para enfrentar as acusações.

A fábrica foi construída em 1969 numa área que ficava fora do perímetro urbano de Bhopal para produzir pesticidas. Uma série de investigações revelou como manutenção e estruturas eram precárias quando ocorreu o acidente. O desastre de Bhopal teve fortes ressonâncias em um país em que o interesse das comunidades pobres e marginalizadas é frequentemente sacrificado em nome do desenvolvimento, e a fiscalização de normas de segurança ocorre a esmo. Muitos indianos têm um grande receio quanto ao interesse de empresas estrangeiras que querem investir no país.

Bhopal

 

... VERGONHA... TRISTEZA!!!... Sherpas!!!...

 

{#emotions_dlg.confused}{#emotions_dlg.mad}{#emotions_dlg.sad}{#emotions_dlg.evil}{#emotions_dlg.cry}{#emotions_dlg.confused}{#emotions_dlg.mad}{#emotions_dlg.sad}{#emotions_dlg.evil}{#emotions_dlg.cry}{#emotions_dlg.confused}{#emotions_dlg.mad}{#emotions_dlg.cry}

07
Jun10

Plunged in Chaos: Europe on the Eve of the Bilderberg Conference

sherpas

  _______________________________

The Bilderberg group will convene in Sitges, Spain, a resort community 30 km from Barcelona, on June 4-7. As usual, the information is supplied by James Tucker and Daniel Estulin who revealed that this year the issues topping the agenda of the club's meeting will be the global recession and the approaches to provoking such economic breakdowns that can help justify the establishment of a full-scale world economic governance.

 

... in http://en.fondsk.ru/article.php?id=3069

 

Intending to prolong the global economic downturn for at least another year, the Bilderberg group hopes to take advantage of the situation to set up a “global ministry of finance” as a part of the UN. Though the decision was actually made at the group's meeting in Greece last year, according to Tucker the plan was torpedoed by US and European “nationalists” (for the Bilderberg group, “nationalists” is a generic term for all nationally-oriented forces espousing national sovereignty and statehood).

 

All year since the last meeting, representatives of the global executive management have been convincing the public across the world to embrace a “new financial order”. The idea recurred in the statements made by N. Sarkozy, G. Brown, and the freshly elected European Council President H. Van Rompuy, but – against the backdrop of a relatively harmless phase of the crisis - the activity remained limited to psychological conditioning and no practical steps have been taken. As Jacques Attali wrote quite reasonably in his After the Crisis, Europe has no right to demand a reform of the global financial architecture as long as it can't organize the institutions that would meet its own needs.

 

The debt crisis in Greece that currently puts in jeopardy the entire European financial system provides a pretext for drastic measures, and both the crisis and the measures are vivid illustrations of the strategy that employs chaos to reorder the existing arrangements. The deliberately generated chaos is tightly controlled by financial institutions, major banks, and hedge funds and serves as an efficient mechanism of governance and social restructuring.

 

The financial attack against Greece promptly evolved into onslaught on Euro and – as it became clear – the developments correlated marginally with the structural shortcomings of the Greek economy. The intensity of the crisis that momentarily posed a threat to the economic and even political integrity of the EU cannot be explained solely by the appetites of faceless financial players. There had to be more serious reasons behind the situation, and to an extent the objectives pursued by those who shaped it can be understood from the statements made by G. Soros.

 

He maintains that the EU owes its current difficulties to the European (especially German) politicians' reluctance to move on, that huge problems await Europe unless it starts developing, and that a kind of a European Monetary Fund helping fight budget deficit must be created. In other words, Europeans are forced to choose between the collapse of the Eurozone and governance centralization.

 

Jacques Attali laid out a specific centralization plan. It is suggested that the EU countries create their own institutions to monitor the activities of financial operators. It is also proposed that they should set up a European creditor of a new formation that – while not being linked to Europe's central and investment banks or governments - would guarantee assistance to viable local financial institutions, buy into their assets, and extend loans under specific terms. Attali further advocates the formation of a European ministry of finance that would immediately be empowered to hand out loans from the name of the EU, and the creation of a European Budget Fund with a mandate to oversee the budgets of the countries whose cumulative dept totals over 85% of the GDP. He warns that an even severer crisis should be expected otherwise.

 

Under the US pressure, A. Merkel finally consented to tough measures (purportedly, Sarkozy even threatened that France would revert to national currency in case she held her own), and early last May EU finance and economy ministers signed an agreement on the mechanisms of budgetary stabilization in the Euro zone, which envisaged the establishment of a Euro 60b safety pillow fund to urgently rescue countries battling with their public finances and the allocation of Euro 440b in guaranteed loans. The IMF also pledged Euro 250b in the case of need. The money is meant for sovereign debt bailouts in the Eurozone, a mission which – for the first time in its entire history – the European central bank will also undertake. Steps facilitating financial transactions were announced by central banks across the world including the US Federal Reserve which will urgently inject US dollars into the European Central Bank as well as into British and Swiss banks.

 

The above can be regarded as the first phase of progress towards centralized European monetary administration. It is unclear so far how exactly the “grand architects” see the world financial governance and what role they plan to give to existing financial institutions like the IMF. The options on the table range from building totally new institutions to – as, for example, suggested by Attali – using the IMF as an authorized supranational regulation center run by a G-24 board.

 

Importantly, once again we are witnessing the creation of mechanisms of centralized supranational control over national economies, and the crisis acts as a catalyst for a guided fast transition to tighter integration within the EU, which is necessary to build a close-knit Western bloc.

The plan imposed on Europe by elite financial circles implies countering the indebtedness problem with the help of new borrowings, which will exacerbate rather than remedy the budget problem. According to Eurostat data, in 2010 the Eurozone sovereign debt will grow from 77.7% to 83.6% of the GDP. Moreover, it is widely held in the expert community that the indebtedness figures for Greece, Portugal, and a number of other EU countries are unrealistically low and do not reflect the actual proportions of the problem.

 

Experts from Lombard Odier, a Swiss bank, estimate the bulk of Greek bad debt at 875% of its GDP, which means that to meet its obligations the country would have to invest – without any foreseeable returns – an amount exceeding its GDP by a factor of 8.75. The situations in Poland and Slovenia are even more alarming – in their cases the debt to GDP ratio is 15 and 11 respectively. The corresponding average over the Eurozone is 4.34, and in the US – 5.

 

Leaving structural problems untouched, the mitigation measures are paving the way for the supranational institutions advocated by mondialist Attali. On May 21, the EU finance ministers adopted at a meeting chaired by European Central Bank president Jean-Claude Trichet and European Council President H. Van Rompuy the German plan of much greater budgetary coordination including penalties for states that break the EU budgetary rules. The sanctions will include suspending the voting rights of repeat offenders, withholding the funding for infrastructural development, etc. It was also proposed to subject national budgets to EU screening prior to their being debated in national legislatures. A report will be prepared by June 17 – notably, the date of the EU summit – outlining a common Eurozone policy. Other, yet more ambitious projects like full control over Eurozone national budgets by a triumvirate comprising the European Commission, the European central bank, and the Euro Group are also discussed.

 

The downsides of the rescue packages are the worst part of the problem. Invoking the threat of financial collapse, the EU countries serially introduced extremely unpopular austerity regimes with salary and pension freezes for state employees, welfare cuts, increased retirement ages, etc. Greece was the first but not the only country affected.

 

The German government plans to cut spending by Euro 10b annually in 2011-2016. France abolished the annual pension for low-income families. Under the IMF pressure, Spain is launching a comprehensive reform including pension indexing freeze, pay reductions and employment cuts in the state sector, the abolition of payments to support families with recently born children, etc. Great Britain, Italy, and others are following the lead.

 

The consequences of the measures are hard to gauge considering that Europe is already facing serious poverty and unemployment problems (the unemployment has reached 10% of the economically active population and continues to grow, and at least 80 mln people are currently below the poverty line).

 

Most likely, the shadow world government - the Bilderberg group – will administer to the public the doze of social problems carefully calculated to enable the elites “to offload troubled assets”, retain control over the situation, and divert protests from the actual sources of problems that trigger them.

 

From Russia's perspective, the conclusion is obvious: any deepening of its integration into the “free” Europe strengthens the financial and informational control over Russia exercised by the global elites seeking to strip it of the status of an independent geopolitical player.

 

Olga CHETVERIKOVA, Assistant Professor, Moscow State Institute of Intentional Relations of the Foreign Ministry of the Russian Federation, Ph.D. in History

 

... EUROPA dos políticos e dos RICOS???... Ná, não creio... dos EUROPEUS!!!... Sherpas!!!...

 

{#emotions_dlg.confused}{#emotions_dlg.mad}{#emotions_dlg.sad}{#emotions_dlg.portugal}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.santarem}{#emotions_dlg.aveiro}{#emotions_dlg.portalegre}{#emotions_dlg.beja}

06
Jun10

... euforia!!!...

sherpas

... eufórico, lanço meus gritos ao Sol,
embeveço meus companheiros,
alindo entorno que uso,
adorno espesso lençol
com bordados de encantar,
faço da solidão, multidão,
abelhas, enxames, vespeiros,
doirados que reflectem brilhos,
ferroadas, marteleiros,
falsidades que se disfarçam
enquanto os tempos perpassam,
encontro imensa graça
nesta vida que esvoaça,

em tudo que se renova
tendo a vida como prova,

gargalho, num arfar incontido,
penso nos outros, comigo,
no pavão que se convence,
no eleito que se não culpa,
que voa sem destino
por tudo que desconhece,
inebriado, sem tino,
que se aplaude ou apupa
no valor que fenece,
que passa, esquece,

tempo imparável, cruel,
tudo apaga, renova,
roda imensurável,
comilona, depaupero,
indistinta, famélica,
pobre que enriquece,
criatura que se julga rica,
miserável que rejuvenesce,
valores que não sentia,
na tristeza, na alegria,

dignidade que se apeçonha,
cara que sente vergonha,

rio que corre no leito,
rio quando sinto, canto
águas do pensamento,
corrente que flui no momento,
lágrimas em doce pranto,
sons que se lançam ao vento,
cintilares que tudo abarcam,
contínuos, que não param,
olhos abertos, escancaram,
sol que tudo cobre,
abrigo do rico, do pobre,

energia que se acumula,
fruta que se digere com gosto,
sobejos do que se avoluma,

enfeite que se fantasia,
disfarça a agonia,
euforia que se não justifica,
sem sentido, preguiça,
esgar de rematar,
início que está a findar!!!... Sherpas!!!...

 

{#emotions_dlg.confused}{#emotions_dlg.mad}{#emotions_dlg.sad}{#emotions_dlg.portugal}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.santarem}{#emotions_dlg.aveiro}{#emotions_dlg.portalegre}{#emotions_dlg.beja}

06
Jun10

... grupo compacto!!!...

sherpas

 

…. grupo compacto, ridente,
guinchos prolongados, andamentos,
cabeças de vento, atitudes de quem olha para trás,


se contempla, contenta,
usufrui a pouca idade de ser gente,


despontam ornamentos
corpos que se formam na década e meia que possuem,
olhos abertos, cabelos à solta,
dão saltos, dão voltas,
mexem, remexem braços, pernas ágeis,
da vida, intensa voragem,
ávidas pelo porvir,
experiência na amizade que se solidifica,
início do que há-de vir,

são bandos barulhentos,
risadas que estremecem tímpanos,
refrescos em tardes quentes ou frias,
final dos dias,
noite que se aproxima,
liberdade de descobrir,
lá vão,
quase mão na mão,
tão juntas, unidas que estão,

são filhas, são jovens,
vorazes, velozes,
são machos, os contrários,
misturados, às vezes,
entoam vozes,
incham pulmões, mostram o que são,
olham displicentes,
agregam conversas,
dão beijos, abraços,
dão voltas diversas,
juntam regaços,
devoram momentos,
regalo dos olhos
quando se devoram,
adoram,
são tempos… aos molhos,

geração que se atropela,
não pára, não pensa,
vive como na tela,
dão vazão aos sentimentos
na rua, na avenida, no banco do jardim
extravasam,
ao colo, enrolados,
abraçam
debaixo do nariz de quem passa,
de quem vê,
sem preconceito, ao jeito,
tão natural, assim,
sem mais nem porquê,
são grupos compactos,
são jovens, aos molhos
frente aos meus olhos,
com risos, com pactos,
ridentes,
diferentes… outras gentes!!!... Sherpas!!!...

 

{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.portugal}{#emotions_dlg.portugal}{#emotions_dlg.portugal}{#emotions_dlg.beer}{#emotions_dlg.beer}{#emotions_dlg.beer}{#emotions_dlg.lips}{#emotions_dlg.lips}{#emotions_dlg.lips}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.smile}

05
Jun10

Marilynne Robinson: Can science solve life's mysteries?

sherpas

It will be a great day in the history of science if we sometime discover a damp shadow elsewhere in the universe where a fungus has sprouted. The mere fossil trace of life in its simplest form would be the crowning achievement of generations of brilliant and diligent labour. And here we are, a gaudy efflorescence of consciousness, staggeringly improbable in light of everything we know about the reality that contains us. There are physicists and philosophers who would correct me. They would say, if there are an infinite number of universes, as in theory there could be, then creatures like us would be very likely to emerge at some time in one of them. But to say this is only to state the fact of our improbability in other terms.

 

Then there is the odd privilege of existence as a coherent self, the ability to speak the word "I" and to mean by it a richly individual history of experience, perception and thought. For the religious, the sense of the soul may have as a final redoubt, not as argument but as experience, that haunting I who wakes us in the night wondering where time has gone, the I we waken to, sharply aware that we have been unfaithful to ourselves, that a life lived otherwise would have acknowledged a yearning more our own than any of the daylit motives whose behests we answer to so diligently. Our religious traditions give us as the name of God two deeply mysterious words, one deeply mysterious utterance: I AM. Putting to one side the question of their meaning as the name and character by which the God of Moses would be known, these are words any human being can say about herself, and does say, though always with a modifier of some kind. I am hungry, I am comfortable, I am a singer, I am a cook. The abrupt descent into particularity in every statement of this kind – Being itself made an auxiliary to some momentary accident of being – may only startle in the dark of night, when the intuition comes that there is no proportion between the great given of existence and the narrow vessel of circumstance into which it is inevitably forced. "I am Ozymandias, king of kings. Look on my works, ye mighty, and despair."

 

There is much speculation about the nature of the mind, its relation to the brain, even doubt that the word "mind" is meaningful. According to EO Wilson, "The brain and its satellite glands have now been probed to the point where no particular site remains that can reasonably be supposed to harbour a nonphysical mind". Perhaps this statement is to be taken as tongue in cheek. But to prove a negative, or to treat it as having been proved, is, oddly enough, an old and essential strategy of positivism. So I do feel obliged to point out that if such a site could be found in the brain, then the mind would be physical in the same sense that anything else with a locus in the brain is physical. To define the mind as nonphysical in the first place clearly prejudices his conclusion. Steven Pinker, on the soul, asks, "How does the spook interact with solid matter? How does an ethereal nothing respond to flashes, pokes and beeps and get arms and legs to move? Another problem is the overwhelming evidence that the mind is the activity of the brain. The supposedly immaterial soul, we now know, can be bisected with a knife, altered by chemicals," and so on. By identifying the soul with the mind, the mind with the brain, and noting the brain's vulnerability as a physical object, he feels he has debunked a conception of the soul that only those who find the word meaningless would ever have entertained.

 

This declension, from the ethereality of the mind/soul as spirit to the reality of the mind/brain as a lump of meat, is dependent, conceptually and for its effects, on precisely the antique dualism these writers who claim to speak for science believe they reject and refute. If complex life is the marvel we all say it is, quite possibly unique to this planet, then meat is, so to speak, that marvel in its incarnate form. It was dualism that pitted the spirit against the flesh, investing spirit with all that is lofty at the expense of flesh, which is by contrast understood as coarse and base. It only perpetuates dualist thinking to treat the physical as if it were in any way sufficiently described in disparaging terms. If the mind is the activity of the brain, this means only that the brain is capable of such lofty and astonishing things that their expression has been given the names mind, and soul, and spirit. Complex life may well be the wonder of the universe, and if it is, its status is not diminished by the fact that we can indeed bisect it, that we kill it routinely.

 

In any case, Wilson's conception of mind clearly has also taken on the properties of the soul, at least as that entity is understood by those eager to insist that there is no ghost in the machine. As Bertrand Russell pointed out decades before Gilbert Ryle coined this potent phrase, the old, confident distinction between materiality and nonmateriality is not a thing modern science can endorse. Physicists say a change in a split photon occurs simultaneously in its severed half, at any theoretical distance. As if there were no time or space, this information of change passes instantly from one to the other. Is an event that defies any understanding we have of causality a physical event? Yes. Can the seeming timelessness and spacelessness that mediate this change also be called physical? Presumably, since they have unambiguous physical consequences. Then perhaps we cannot claim to know the nature of the physical, and perhaps we ought not to be so confident in opposing it to a real or imagined nonphysical. These terms, as conventionally used, are not identical with the terms "real" and "unreal", though the belief that they are is the oldest tenet of positivism. The old notion of dualism should be put aside, now that we know a little about the uncanny properties of the finer textures of the physical. If, as some have suggested, quantum phenomena govern the brain, evidence for the fact is not likely to be found in scrutiny of lobes or glands or by means of any primitive understanding of the brain's materiality.

 

Let us say the mind is what the brain does. This is a definition that makes the mind, whatever else, a participant in the whole history and experience of the body. Pinker offers the same definition, but modifies it differently. He says, "The mind is what the brain does; specifically, the brain processes information, and thinking is a kind of computation" – excluding the felt experience of thinking, with all its diverse burdens and colorations. Elsewhere he says, with the certitude typical of his genre, "Family feelings are designed to help our genes replicate themselves, but we cannot see or smell genes . . . Our emotions about kin use a kind of inverse genetics to guess which of the organisms we interact with are likely to share our genes (for example, if someone appears to have the same parents as you do, treat the person as if their genetic wellbeing overlaps with yours)." And again we have the self we experience at a qualitative remove from what the brain really does. Presumably we are seduced into collaborating in the perpetuation of some part of our genetic inheritance by those moments of love and embrace. But why are these seductions necessary? Why are they lovely to us? Why would nature bother to distract us with them? Why do we stand apart from nature in such a way that the interests that really move us should be concealed from us? Might there not be fewer of these interfamilial crimes, honour killings, child abandonments, if nature had made us straightforwardly aware that urgencies more or less our own were being served in our propagating and nurturing? There is more than a hint of dualism in the notion that some better self – the term seems fair – has to be distracted by ingratiating pleasures to accommodate the practical business of biology.

 

This automaton language of Pinker's sounds a bit like Descartes. But Descartes theorised that the pineal gland, central and singular in the symmetries of the brain, moved one way or another to permit or obstruct the actions of the body, which he knew were governed by the brain. In his theory, the impressions of the senses, integrated in this gland, were appraised by the soul, which in Descartes is a term that seems pointedly synonymous with the mind. That is to say, his interest is in cognition and reason, not sin or salvation, and this in a physical and intellectual landscape inflamed by theological controversy in which those concepts figured prominently. Still, it is the soul that appraises what the mind integrates. In this way Descartes acknowledges the complexity of thinking, judging, and in his way incorporates the feeling of consciousness and the complexity of it more adequately than most theorists do now. He speaks of the mind, which he calls "I, that is to say, the mind by which I am what I am", in ways that assume it is nevertheless accessible to instruction and correction by an I that stands apart from it. To correct the syntax of his thinking so that the anomaly is removed would be to deprive it of its power as testimony – we do indeed continuously stand apart from ourselves, appraising. Every higher act of the mind, intellectual, aesthetic, or moral, is, paradoxically, also an exercise in self-doubt, self-scrutiny.

 

What Descartes actually intended by the words "soul" and "mind" seems to me an open question for Descartes himself. Clearly they are no mere ghost or illusion. No doubt there are volumes to be consulted on this subject. What their meanings are for us as inheritors of the thought of the modern period is a more manageable question. I am excluding the kind of thinking on this point that tends toward the model of the wager. According to this model, we place our faith in an understanding of the one thing needful, and, ultimately, suffer or triumph depending on the correctness of our choice. By these lights the soul exists primarily to be saved or lost. It is hardly more our intimate companion in mortal time than is the mind or brain by the reckoning of the positivists, behaviourists, neo-Darwinists and Freudians. The soul, in this understanding of it, is easily characterised by the nonreligious as a fearful and self-interested idea, as the product of acculturation or a fetish of the primitive brain rather than as a name for an aspect of deep experience. Therefore it is readily dismissed as a phantom of the mind, and the mind is all the more readily dismissed for its harbouring of such fears and delusions.

Descartes complains that "the philosophers of the schools accept as a maxim that there is nothing in the understanding which was not previously in the senses". The strictures of this style of thought are indeed very old. It strikes me that the word "senses" is in need of definition. As it is used, even by these schoolmen, it seems to signify only those means by which we take in information about our environment, including our own bodies, presumably. Pinker says, "The faculty with which we ponder the world has no ability to peer inside itself or our other faculties to see what makes them tick. That makes us the victims of an illusion: that our own psychology comes from some divine force or mysterious essence or almighty principle."

 

But the mind, or the brain, a part of the body just as Wilson says it is, is deeply sensitive to itself. Guilt, nostalgia, the pleasure of anticipation, even the shock of a realisation, all arise out of an event that occurs entirely in the mind or brain, and they are as potent as other sensations. Consistency would require a belief in the nonphysical character of the mind to exclude them from the general category of experience. If it is objected that all these things are ultimately dependent on images and sensations first gleaned from the world by the senses, this might be granted, on the condition that the sensory experience retained in the mind is understood to have the character the mind has given it. And it might be granted if sensory experience is understood to function as language does, both enabling thought and conforming it in large part to its own context, its own limitations. Anyone's sensory experience of the world is circumstantial and cultural, qualified by context and perspective, a fact which again suggests that the mind's awareness of itself is of a kind with its awareness of physical reality. The mind, like the body, is very much placed in the world. Those who claim to dismiss the mind/body dichotomy actually perpetuate it when they exclude the mind's self-awareness from among the data of human nature.

 

What grounds can there be for doubting that a sufficient biological account of the brain would yield the complex phenomenon we know and experience as the mind? It is only the pertinacity of the mind/body dichotomy that sustains the notion that a sufficient biological account of the brain would be reductionist in the negative sense. Such thinking is starkly at odds with our awareness of the utter brilliance of the physical body.

I do not myself believe that such an account of the brain will ever be made. Present research methods show the relatively greater activity of specific regions of the brain in response to certain stimuli or in the course of certain mental or physical behaviours. But in fact it hardly seems possible that in practice the region of the brain that yields speech would not be deeply integrated with the regions that govern social behaviour as well as memory and imagination, to degrees varying with circumstances. Nor does it seem possible that each of these would not under all circumstances profoundly modify the others, in keeping with learning and with inherited and other qualities specific to any particular brain. What should we call the presiding intelligence that orchestrates the decision to speak as a moment requires? What governs the inflections that make any utterance unmistakably the words of one speaker in this whole language-saturated world? To say it is the brain is insufficient, over-general, implying nothing about nuance and individuation. Much better to call it the mind.

 

If the brain at the level of complex and nuanced interaction with itself does indeed become mind, then the reductionist approach insisted upon by writers on the subject is not capable of yielding evidence of mind's existence, let alone an account of its functioning.

 

The strangeness of reality consistently exceeds the expectations of science, and the assumptions of science, however tried and rational, are very inclined to encourage false expectations. As a notable example, no one expected to find that the expansion of the universe is accelerating, and that the rate of its acceleration is accelerating. It is a tribute to the brilliance of science that we can know such things. And it is also an illustration of the fact that science does not foreclose possibility, including discoveries that overturn very fundamental assumptions, and that it is not a final statement about reality but a highly fruitful mode of inquiry into it.

 

The neo-Darwinists argue that the brain evolved to maximise the chance of genetic survival, to negotiate access to food and sex, presumably before the species evolved to the point where the prolonged helplessness of infants made genetic survival dependent in some degree on cooperation. Therefore, they tell us, we may not assume that any motive can depart from an essential qualitative likeness to these original motives. The "evolutionary epic" explains the brain exhaustively. But "the material" itself is an artifact of the scale at which we perceive. We know that we abide with quarks and constellations, in a reality unknowable by us in a degree we will never be able to calculate, but reality all the same, the stuff and the matrix of our supposedly quotidian existence. We know that within, throughout, the solid substantiality of our experience, indeterminacy reigns. Making use of the conceptual vocabulary of science to exclude a possibility that in a present state of knowledge – or a former one – that vocabulary would seem to exclude, has been the mission of positivist thinking since Auguste Comte declared scientific knowledge effectively complete. If doing so is a reflex of the polemical impulse to assert the authority of science, understandable when the project was relatively new, it is by now an atavism that persists as a consequence of this same polemical impulse. The ancient antagonist that has shaped positivism and parascientific thought and continues to inspire its missionary zeal is religion. For cultural and historical reasons, the religions against which it has opposed itself are Christianity and Judaism, both of which must be called anthropologies, whatever else. "What is man that thou art mindful of him?" The very question is an assertion that mindfulness is an attribute of God, as well as of man, a statement of the sense of deep meaning inhering in mindfulness.

 

If I were not a religious person, but wished to make an account of religion, I believe I would tend towards the Feuerbachian view that religion is a human projection of humanity's conceptions of beauty, goodness, power and other valued things, a humanising of experience by understanding it as structured around and mirroring back these values. Then it would resemble art, with which it is strongly associated. But this would dignify religion and characterise the mind as outwardly and imaginatively engaged with the world, as, in parascientific thought after Comte, it never is. Sigmund Freud, in Civilization and Its Discontents, says of religion, "The whole thing is so patently infantile, so foreign to reality, that to anyone with a friendly attitude to humanity it is painful to think that the great majority of mortals will never be able to rise above this view of life". Then, two pages on, he says, "The question of the purpose of human life has been raised countless times: it has never received a satisfactory answer and perhaps does not admit of one . . . Once again, only religion can answer the question of the purpose of life. One can hardly be wrong in concluding that the idea of life having a purpose stands and falls with the religious system." And then he says, "As we see, what decides the purpose of life is simply the programme of the pleasure principle. This principle dominates the operation of the mental apparatus from the start. There can be no doubt about its efficacy, and yet its programme is at loggerheads with the whole world, with the macrocosm as much as with the microcosm. There is no possibility at all of its being carried through; all the regulations of the universe run counter to it."

 

It seems a little strange that religion is infantile but the desire for pleasure, which "dominates the operation of the mental apparatus from the start", is not, or not, at least, in any pejorative sense. It seems strange as well that though "there is no possibility at all of its being carried out", the programme of the pleasure principle is not also, like religion, "foreign to reality". Pinker says, "Religion is a desperate measure that people resort to when the stakes are high and they have exhausted the usual techniques for the causation of success". Then a little farther on he lists the "imponderables" that lie behind the human tendency towards religion and also philosophy. These imponderables are consciousness in the sense of sentience or subjective experience, the self, free will, conceptual meaning, knowledge and morality. He says, "Maybe philosophical problems are hard not because they are divine or irreducible or meaningless or workaday science, but because the mind of Homo sapiens lacks the cognitive equipment to solve them. We are organisms, not angels, and our brains are organs, not pipelines to the truth."

 

How odd that these "imponderables" should be just the kind of thing humankind has pondered endlessly. Neo-Darwinism allows for hypertrophy, the phenomenon by which evolution overshoots its mark and produces some consequence not strictly useful to the ends of genetic replication, the human brain as case in point. How strange it would be, then, that this accident, this excess, should feel a tropism toward what Pinker himself calls "the truth". The great difference between parascientific thought on one hand and religion and traditional philosophy on the other is perhaps encapsulated in that word "solve", assuming the use of the word is not simply a casual imprecision. It does seem as though, for the purposes of these writers, science is the conquest of mystery, as it was for Auguste Comte and as it certainly was not for Isaac Newton. A difference between a Newton and a Comte, between science and parascience, is the desire in the latter case to treat scientific knowledge as complete, at least in its methods and assumptions, in order to further the primary object of closing questions about human nature and the human circumstance.

 

Science has arrived at a cluster of hypotheses about the first instant of creation. They attempt description, in the manner of science. In course of time, on various grounds, one description might prove to be more satisfactory than others. A consensus might be arrived at about the nature of a very fecund particle whose eruption became everything we know, and a great deal more beside. We might learn at some point whether time was created together with this universe or exists independently of it. The questions to which science in its most sophisticated forms has come would have been the imponderables of philosophy a few generations ago, of theology a few centuries ago, of religion a few millennia ago. Why this ancient instinct for the greatest questions? It is striking that Freud identifies religion with the meaning of life, and Pinker identifies it with the high-order questions humankind has posed to itself from antiquity. Then both writers for all purposes dismiss these things as insoluble, as if that were a legitimate reason to dismiss any question. We may never know why gravity is so much weaker than, in theory, it should be, or know if we are only one among any number of actual and potential universes. But every real question is fruitful, as the history of human thought so clearly demonstrates.

 

And "fruitful" is by no means a synonym for "soluble". What is man? One answer on offer is, An organism whose haunting questions perhaps ought not to be meaningful to the organ that generates them, lacking as it is in any means of "solving" them. Another answer might be, It is still too soon to tell. We might be the creature who brings life on this planet to an end, and we might be the creature who awakens to the privileges that inhere in our nature – selfhood, consciousness, even our biologically anomalous craving for "the truth" – and enjoys and enhances them. Mysteriously, neither possibility precludes the other. Our nature will describe itself as we respond to new circumstances in a world that changes continuously. So long as the human mind exists to impose itself on reality, as it has already done so profoundly, what it is and what we are must remain an open question.

 

Each of us lives intensely within herself or himself, continuously assimilating past and present experience to a narrative and vision that are unique in every case yet profoundly communicable, whence the arts. And we all live in a great reef of collective experience, past and present, that we receive and preserve and modify. William James says data should be thought of not as givens but as gifts, this by way of maintaining an appropriate humility in the face of what we think we know. The gifts we bring to the problem of making an account of the mind are overwhelmingly rich, severally and together. This is not an excuse for excluding them from consideration. History and civilisation are an authoritative record the mind has left, is leaving, and will leave, and objectivity deserving the name would take this record as a starting point. In practical terms, this would mean doing as the humanists have done since the building of the library of Alexandria, more or less. Humankind never ceases to express itself in new terms, and the data at hand are inevitably flawed and partial. But the complexity of the object, the human brain, and all associated phenomena are at the centre of the question, inextricable from it. The schools of thought I have criticised exclude the great fact of human exceptionalism, though no one would deny that it is a pure expression of the uniqueness of the human brain. A primary assumption of the evolutionary model behind neo-Darwinism is that development can be traced back through a series of subtly incremental changes.

 

At what for our purposes is the terminus of all these changes there emerges, voila, the world as we know it. The neatness of this argument has always bothered me, but this is no refutation of it, nor am I interested in refuting it. I wish only to point out that there are certain things it should not be taken to imply. For example, it does not imply that a species carries forward an essential similarity to its ancestors. A bird is not a latter-day dinosaur. We can assume the ancestors ate and slept and mated, carrying on the universal business of animal life. Still, whatever the shared genetic history of beast and bird, a transformative change occurred over the millennia, and to find the modern sparrow implicit in the thunder lizard is quite certainly an error, if one wishes to make an ornithological study of sparrow behaviour. On the same grounds, there is no reason to assume our species resembles in any essential way the ancient primates whose genes we carry. It is a strategy of parascientific argument to strip away culture-making, as if it were a ruse and a concealment within which lurked the imagined primitive who is for them our true nature.

Here is another instance of evolution, to illustrate my point. The universe passed through its unimaginable first moment, first year, first billion years, wresting itself from whatever state of nonexistence, inflating, contorting, resolving into space and matter, bursting into light.

 

Matter condenses, stars live out their generations. Then, very late, there is added to the universe of being a shaped stick or stone, a jug, a cuneiform tablet. They appear on a tiny, teetering, lopsided planet, and they demand wholly new vocabularies of description for reality at every scale. What but the energies of the universe could be expressed in the Great Wall of China, the St Matthew Passion? For our purposes, there is nothing else. Yet language that would have been fully adequate to describe the ages before the appearance of the first artifact would have had to be enlarged by concepts like agency and intention, words like creation, that would query the great universe itself. Might not the human brain, that most complex object known to exist in the universe, have undergone a qualitative change as well? If my metaphor only suggests the possibility that our species is more than an optimised ape, that something terrible and glorious befell us, a change gradualism could not predict – if this is merely another fable, it might at least encourage an imagination of humankind large enough to acknowledge some small fragment of the mystery we are.

 

This is an edited extract from Marilynne Robinson's Absence of Mind (Yale).

 

... excelente...  Sherpas!!!...

 

{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.smile}

04
Jun10

... não lembra... nem ao DIABO!!!...

sherpas

… remediar o mal feito,
não lembra, nem ao Diabo,
esse tem sido o defeito,
desde que conheço e lembro,
este item, esta parcela,
esta ilusão, este hiato,
esta continuidade, descontinuada,
substituição, sem querela,
bem formosa, florida,
no dia da alvorada,
manter o gentio, a farpela,
ao longo de tantos anos,
com pouco nos contentamos,
numa situação confortável,
para minoria forrada,

  


conivente, bem amável,
na alternativa possível,
passível de discursatas,
intenções, meias tintas,
promessas e… pataratas!!!...

… de todos os sistemas, o mal menor,
de acordo, sim senhor,
quem sou eu, para me opor (???...),
no meio de tanto doutor,
com valias, mais que muitas,
seja ele, qual for,
andamos num desengano,
remediando, remediando,
perante tanta trapaça,
cá nos vamos sujeitando,
fazendo chalaça, achando graça,
numa anedota tamanha,
País de pacotilha,
com habilidade e manha,
há quem se filia, perfilha,

com devoção e entrega,
ao clube, ao bando da trama,
num laranjal imenso,
num roseiral, de espanto,
quedando salvaguardado e… tanto,
numa ascensão segura, dilecta,
num futuro que se projecta,
profissional da coisa pública,
a mais nobre, a política,
segundo afirmam, com denodo,
no seio de tanto engodo,

degrau a degrau, confesso,
pelo que vejo, não professo,
lá vão, ganhando o Céu,
remediando o mal feito,
de defeito em… defeito,
não lembra, nem ao Diabo,
nesta ilusão, neste hiato!!!...

… não seguros, muito incertos,
quanto a Presidentes, gente fina,
vão rebuscar ao passado,
dentre eles, o mais esperto,
excelso com que se atina,
duma, doutra cor, com esplendor,
um acerto, um desacerto, um calhar,
algum… há-de ganhar,

recompensa de maus governos,
de buracos bem fundos, medonhos,
que cavaram a esmo, bem ternos,
a um, chamam-lhe monstro,
a outro, descolonização,
bem lhe tentam tapar o rosto,
fazer de conta que não,
presentes na nossa memória,
fazem já parte… da história!!!...

… bem lhe mudam a farpela,
já vai faltando… a tela,
bem formosa, sem querela,
florida e anunciada,
continuidade, descontinuada,
desde o dia… da alvorada!!!... Sherpas!!!...

 

{#emotions_dlg.confused}{#emotions_dlg.mad}{#emotions_dlg.sad}{#emotions_dlg.portugal}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.santarem}{#emotions_dlg.aveiro}{#emotions_dlg.portalegre}{#emotions_dlg.beja}

04
Jun10

... por dá cá... aquela palha!!!...

sherpas

 

… por dá cá aquela palha, movimenta-se a tralha,
levanta-se escarcéu,
brada-se bem alto, grita-se, move-se a Terra, o Céu,
a turba multa, agita-se, há confrontos, há encontros,
confusões, multidões,
justiça que se não aplica, processos, reuniões,
o mal com que se fica, quando me afronto,
quando encaro, quando não paro,
por uma fantasia,
por uma questão de milhão, por negócio, por estadão,

por dá cá aquela palha, por um estilo, por uma aflição,
como passo de magia,
logo se levanta a canalha, tudo grita, tudo ralha,
como bem calha,
mania, jeito, perseguição,
confronto, enfrentamento,
questão dum minuto, dum momento,
solidão, política reles… em acção!!!...

… todos parecem o que não são,
todos são o que são, mais aldrabão, menos aldrabão,
mais processo, menos inquérito,
mais lei que se não ajusta, mais justo, feito pretérito,
quando miúdo, quando bem novo,
agora, que se não assusta, deixou de pertencer ao Povo,
fala de negócios, de milhões,
de estratégias, congeminações,
do partido a que pertence, que o eleva, que o vence,

bando, família, quezília, discussões em demasia,
ambições exacerbadas,
outros tempos, tantos teres, mais haveres, menos nadas,
peripécias avultadas, hipocrisias com fartura,
por dá cá aquela palha, que confusão, tanta tralha,
lei que se busca, que se procura,
processo que se arremessa,
com pressa, tamanha união… ganância e loucura!!!...

… é um acumular de queixas, uma fartura de processos levantados,
tantas as rixas, as deixas, incertezas, dúvidas, negócios mal parados,
mãos que se apropriam, que se adonam, impunes, imunes, não julgadas,
dos farsantes, palhaços, artistas,
perante os ignorantes, os de curtas vistas,
cheias de tudo… cheias de nadas!!!... Sherpas!!!...

 

{#emotions_dlg.confused}{#emotions_dlg.mad}{#emotions_dlg.sad}{#emotions_dlg.portugal}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.santarem}{#emotions_dlg.aveiro}{#emotions_dlg.portalegre}{#emotions_dlg.beja}

04
Jun10

Los moralistas, los economistas y sus abuelas

sherpas

Algún día, cuando salgamos de la crisis, ya con los nervios más templados, habrá que hacer una historia pormenorizada de las explicaciones de la crisis. A primera vista, el repertorio no puede ser más amplio. Como en botica, hay de todo. Desde las que invocan la ausencia de regulación hasta las que apelan a las distorsiones introducidas por los incentivos institucionales, por la regulación. Por ahí en medio transitaron las que culpaban a la ambición de banqueros y especuladores.

 

... in http://www.elpais.com/articulo/opinion/moralistas/economistas/abuelas/elpepuopi/20100604elpepiopi_4/Tes

 ... instituições mundiais são 32... umas funcionam, OUTRAS não!!!...

 

Para entender los procesos económicos hay que abandonar las hipótesis hiperracionalistas

Lo que sí está en nuestras manos es modificar las instituciones

 

Parecía el clavo ardiendo de cierta izquierda que, sin atreverse con el léxico anticapitalista, se conformó con el de los predicadores: la pérdida de los valores, la ambición sin escrúpulos y cosas así. El malo no era el sistema sino la naturaleza humana. El peccatum originale originatum de los escolásticos.

 

Entre ciertos economistas estas explicaciones son cosa de mucha risa, como, en general, diversas reflexiones que, al buscar soluciones a los males del mundo, acaban reclamando cambios en las mentalidades, los valores o la educación. Sí, piensan, y si mi abuela tuviera ruedas, sería un camión. Pero las cosas son como son y la maquinaria social funciona con el combustible del interés. Ya saben, el panadero de Adam Smith.

  ... engrenagens finaceiras... estão perras!!!... Porque será???...

 

Y no les falta razón. Hay una suerte de moralismo abstracto que, ante el menor problema, a la tercera frase ya está invocando el conjuro del "cambio de valores". Es el mismo que acusa a los políticos de electoralismo, de no pensar más que en los votos. Que viene a ser como acusar a los futbolistas de tratar el balón a patadas o a los corredores de querer llegar antes que sus rivales a la meta.

 

Para bien o para mal, la búsqueda de votos es el argumento de la obra política: el político quiere gobernar, para gobernar ha de obtener más votos que el contrario y el mejor modo de obtener más votos es criticar su gestión. Así es como hemos diseñado las instituciones y, según algunos, como funcionan mejor: movidos por sus mezquinos intereses, unos y otros se vigilan y, al final, conseguimos penalizar a los tramposos y minimizar los errores. En economía, la explotación de las oportunidades de beneficio es el combustible de la maquinaria.

 

 Culpar a la ambición está fuera de lugar. De ahí el irrealismo de las propuestas de buen rollo como la de "esto lo arreglamos entre todos" o las apelaciones por lo derecho a "la confianza". La confianza, como la felicidad, no se consigue con invocaciones. A decir verdad, si alguien nos dice, a palo seco, "confía en mí", mejor salir corriendo.

 ... EUROLANDIA... em toda a sua "pujança"/ou NÃO???...

 

Si hay que elegir, prefiero la cruda arrogancia de los economistas al fariseísmo gestero de

los otros. En la sobreactuación de los moralistas hay un no sé qué de impostada candidez que atufa a deshonestidad intelectual y para el que no se me ocurre mejor purga que las maneras bruscas y descreídas de los cultivadores de la ciencia triste. En las labores de derrumbe, los economistas pueden dar curso a una mala baba, no exenta de gracia, normalmente embridada en sus áridos empeños habituales, y que da mucho juego cuando hay que oxigenar los ambientes.

 

Por eso mismo, sería de desear que no limitasen la aplicación de sus talentos al moro muerto del buenismo moralista. Hay muchos otros lugares en los que las abuelas también tienen ruedas. Sin ir más lejos, en la propia economía no faltan los fantaseos, por ejemplo, acerca de cómo somos los humanos.

 

La teoría económica, al menos la que camina por la avenida más transitada, asume que los agentes somos egoístas y la mar de racionales. Tenemos en cuenta todas las opciones disponibles, evaluamos óptimamente las consecuencias que se siguen de cada una de ellas y actuamos en consecuencia sin otro objetivo que el mayor beneficio. La información relevante, contenida en los precios, nos bastaría para decidir. Si actuamos de ese modo, las cosas funcionan.

 

Si nos desviamos, aparecen los problemas. Se nos complica la vida, la de cada uno y la de todos. Las burbujas especulativas, por ejemplo, se dan cuando nos dejamos llevar por la confianza en que las cosas irán a mejor, sin que exista ninguna razón para ello, sin evaluar adecuadamente la información disponible. La explicación de no pocos desórdenes del mundo radicaría en que no somos tan racionales como sostiene la teoría.

 

A estas alturas, el lector puede empezar a pensar que quizá no hay tanta diferencia entre culpar a "la falta de valores" y culpar a "la falta de racionalidad" y que, después de todo, quizá las abuelas de los economistas también tienen pinta de camiones. Y sí, hay algo tramposo en ese proceder que apela "al mejor de los mundos". Como si un entrenador justificara la derrota de su equipo porque "sus jugadores no corren como un guepardo".

 

La trampa no consiste en apelar a una situación hipotética, a cómo hubiesen ido las cosas si se hubiera actuado de otra manera, sino al grado de realismo de esa "otra manera". La explicación de la derrota porque "no jugaron por los extremos" también apela a una situación hipotética y la damos por buena. No está al alcance de los jugadores correr como un guepardo, al menos sin farmacopea, pero sí que está a su alcance jugar por los extremos.

 

En realidad, toda explicación tiene algo de lamento y, en un momento u otro apela a situaciones hipotéticas, a posibilidades que no llegaron a cuajar. Y todas las valoraciones, algo de reproche. Las historias, la de las revoluciones americana, francesa, rusa, la de la Segunda República, la de Cuba o la de la Transición y, también, la de cada cual, tienen otra historia que pudo haber sido y no fue, pulcra y sin sombras, que las avergüenza y desmerece. Pero no todas las nostalgias valen igual. Consideramos infeliz a alguien que, como el poeta, se lamenta por no haber apostado por "alguien que le amó y que le abandona"; a quien se lamenta por no haber apostado por la Elsa de Casablanca lo consideramos un trastornado. Nos importa el realismo del repertorio de posibilidades.

 

De modo que lo que hay que tasar es el grado de realismo de los humanos conjeturados por los economistas, no sea que tenga el mismo que El libro de los seres imaginarios de Borges. Si no nos reconocemos ni por casualidad, quizá sea cosa de pensar que explicar la crisis por los "fallos" de las personas sería como explicar la derrota futbolera por los guepardos. En 2002, Daniel Kahneman se llevó el Nobel por recordar que los mortales comunes y los que suponen los economistas nos parecemos como un huevo a una castaña. Somos racionales pero no tanto. Así las cosas, no es raro que el año pasado en un libro, Animal Spirits, escrito a dos manos con Robert Schiller, otro premiado, Akerloff recomendase abandonar las hipótesis hiperracionalistas si queríamos entender los procesos económicos, incluida la crisis.

 

Su diagnóstico, en apariencia, no anda tan alejado del convencional: tal como somos, confiados, temerosos y bastante imprevisibles, es normal que, con las instituciones que tenemos, pasen las cosas que pasan. Pero había un importante matiz, un cambio de énfasis en la situación hipotética invocada: no buscaba soluciones donde no se pueden encontrar, enfilando la senda imposible del "si fuéramos de otra manera, racionales", sino en las instituciones, algo que sí está en nuestra mano modificar.

 

A lo que se ve, casi todo el mundo tiene una abuela tuneada. Nos podemos reír hasta descoyuntarnos de quienes achacan los males del mundo a la codicia o al afán de lucro. Pero, por favor, que no se acabe la fiesta. Hay mucho material.

 

Félix Ovejero Lucas es profesor de Ética y Economía de la Universidad de Barcelona. Su último libro es Incluso un pueblo de demonios (Katz).

 

... porque NÃO... repensar as INSTITUIÇÕES, refazer o MUNDO???... Sherpas!!!...

 

{#emotions_dlg.confused}{#emotions_dlg.mad}{#emotions_dlg.sad}{#emotions_dlg.portugal}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.cry}{#emotions_dlg.santarem}{#emotions_dlg.aveiro}{#emotions_dlg.portalegre}{#emotions_dlg.beja}

03
Jun10

... ausências!!!...

sherpas

 

… sem ninguém, desvario de casas que se amontoam,
janelas trancadas, portas sem alma,
pessoas já mortas, restos de esperas,
ausências marcadas,
fugas cerradas para outras terras,

futuros que buscam, juventude que parte,
nada se queda, ruas que tem,
vazias, sem vozes, sombras esparsas,
sussurros e traças,
rasteiros, às vezes, ratos que passam, saídas velozes,
memórias que se esbatem,
pedras calcinadas por sol que abrasa,
tarde sem fim, calma tão grande, finura da teia,
tão bela, se enfeita num canto da janela,
mancha, sequela,

tecedeira apurada, armadilha que monta,
aranha que espreita, mosca que encontra,
banquete que guarda no tempo que passa,
sem gente, sem nada,

confins da serra, lá no fundo mais fundo,
vale viçoso, perdido,
regueiro que corre, canto afinado,
já foi terra, foi mundo,
lugar esquecido,

casa que foi berço,
telhado já gasto, sem vida, sem nada,
com tudo fechado,
lamento de pássaro que voa,
não pára,
se perde no ar, desaparece, dispara,
azul tão denso, nuvem cinzenta,
pingas que caem,
que formam charcos, recônditos, esparsos,
esquecidos os espaços,
imagens se esvaem,

cúmulos esfumados, brigas, recados,
clamores que se ouviam, turbas, rebanhos,
ajuntamento de gados,
sons de chocalhos, constantes na serra,
assobios, montados,
serranos robustos,
cabrestos com pastos nos lombos dos burros,
resfolegares com custos,

liças, justas, fenos, palhas,
aparelhos com tralhas, enfeites com cestas,
frutas na horta, couves às costas,
mesas compostas,
jarros com vinhos, filhas com filhos,

comunidade tão junta, vida pujante,
tempo que não volta, recordação d´outrora,
imagem que fica na face que chora,

terra abandonada, porta fechada,
janela trancada

noite que inunda,
solidão como tumba,
rato que sai,
mosca que cai,
aranha que compõe teia tão linda,
tempo que passa no dia que finda,
vale de ninguém
emaranhado de casas vazias,
ruas
tão nuas, minhas e tuas,

saudades de alguém,
conjuntos vazios,
jungidos os bois, terrenos, desafios,
tarefas sem regras, labutas tão duras,
são casas, são pedras tão puras,
calcadas com dor,
lágrimas, suores,
são sedes, sentires,
esperanças, regresso,
afastamento, insucesso,
esquecimentos, provires!!!... Sherpas!!!...

 

{#emotions_dlg.confused}{#emotions_dlg.mad}{#emotions_dlg.sad}{#emotions_dlg.portugal}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.santarem}{#emotions_dlg.aveiro}{#emotions_dlg.portalegre}{#emotions_dlg.beja}

02
Jun10

... a poesia... é PODER!!!...

sherpas

… a poesia, é poder,
sempre foi, podem crer,
é sentimento, é amor,
é ajuda, é entrega,
fina, débil, como uma flor,
doce de se pronunciar,
quando recitada, como afago,
como aconchego, um sossego,
uma sensação boa, seja onde for,
enfrentamento, em dado momento,
numa luta, numa refrega,
uma partilha de sentimento,
una, forte, solidária,
quando dita ou cantada,
bem em frente, bem na cara,
de qualquer espécie de tratante,
extraordinário ou… extravagante!!!...
{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.smile}
… é poder, a poesia,
é um querer mais, um desconcerto,
uma inquietação permanente,
uma esperança, não utopia,
sonho que se alcança,
uma escolha, um acerto,
na hora mais indicada,
contra a estupidez posicionada,
dos vazios, despudorados,
imbecis apalermados,
com a mente… cheia de nada!!!...

… a poesia, é poder,
é ir mais além, com amor,
é unir os desamparados,
é compreender, aceitar,
fazer seja o que for,
endireitar o que está torto,
fazer ouvir os moucos,
abrir os olhos fechados,
dos que não querem ver, não podem,
alimentar os que têm fome,
igualar todos os homens,
fazer muito… pelos que são poucos!!!...

… é poder, a poesia,
quando intervém, quando afirma,
quando sentida, quando escrita,
é palavra acutilante,
é perseguição, não fantasia,
quando esclarece, ilumina,
quando enche o coração,
com olhos húmidos, baços,
nos entregamos, mão na mão,
com fúria, com razão,
com gritos, com abraços,
com profunda… emoção!!!...

… a poesia, é poder,
basta ouvir, basta entender,
basta tentar escrever,
sem intenções obscuras,
com a verdade que nos conduz,
quanta realização produz,
quanta maravilha concretiza,
quando se pensa… se poetisa!!!...

… é poder, a poesia,
é uma conjugação perfeita,
entre o querer, o saber,
uma harmonia, doce empatia,
límpida palavra que se ajeita,
que dança, que nos faz soluçar,
que nos eleva, quando se cria,
que nos faz gemer, nos faz chorar,
nos faz rir ou cantar,
que nos entrega, nos faz amar,
com devoção, com enlevo,
o que nos rodeia, sem pejo,
agradecendo o que somos,
continuando iguais… como fomos!!!...

… a poesia é poder,
dê lá, por onde der,
enquanto… um HOMEM, quiser!!!... Sherpas!!!...

 

{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.portugal}{#emotions_dlg.portugal}{#emotions_dlg.portugal}{#emotions_dlg.sol}{#emotions_dlg.sol}{#emotions_dlg.sol}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.portugal}{#emotions_dlg.smile}{#emotions_dlg.sol} 

01
Jun10

Louise Bourgeois dies in New York, aged 98

sherpas

Grande dame of American and European art, whose work was founded in childhood

 

Louise Bourgeois, the French-born, American-based artist best known for her sculptures of vast metal spiders, died yesterday in a New York hospital at the age of 98. Bourgeois, who only found widespread acclaim late in life, had suffered a heart attack at the weekend, a spokeswoman said.

 

... in http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2010/jun/01/louise-bourgeois-dies-new-york-98

 

With her death, American and European art has lost not only a tremendous and hugely influential artist, but a direct link between the art of the 21st century and belle epoque Paris, with cubism, symbolism, surrealism and abstract expressionism, and all that followed.

Born in Paris, on Christmas Day 1911, she recounted that the attending doctor had told her mother, "Madam, you are quite ruining my day." Her personality and her art were to match, and there are few artists who have claimed so outspokenly that their work has been founded in childhood and adolescence.

 

Her parents ran a prosperous family business devoted to the repair and resale of medieval and 17th and 18th century tapestries and textiles, living above the showroom in Paris.

 

As a child, Bourgeois had a talent for mathematics. In adolescence, she began helping in the workshop of the business, repairing the destroyed lower portions of old tapestries, sewing fig-leaves on to the genitalia of the naked figures on works destined for prudish American collectors. At about this time her philandering father introduced his lover, an Englishwoman called Sadie, into the household as the children's tutor. From her, Bourgeois learned English, as well as jealousy and hatred.

 

All of this became part of the Bourgeois legend and the engine of her art. As an emigre French artist who moved to New York in 1938, her career developed slowly. Critical and commercial success only came when she was in her 60s. Although it was not until 1982 that New York's Museum of Modern Art gave her a retrospective – the first it had ever mounted of a woman artist – she was by then already well-known, if regarded as uncategoriseable, marginal, even eccentric. The exhibition transformed her into the grande dame of American art.

 

In the same year, the photographer Robert Mapplethorpe took a number of famous portraits of Bourgeois. She wore a black coat of monkey fur and carried something under her arm as a sort of prop: a big, obscene black latex sculpture, resembling a gigantic penis and balls. She insisted it was not a phallus at all. It was, she said, her little girl. In Mapplethorpe's images, Bourgeois smiles mischievously for the camera. The image is immensely seductive.

 

Bourgeois made sculptures in all kinds of media; she made wonderful prints and drawings, created claustrophobic installations and fabricated little sewn dolls and giant metal spiders with equal care. She even recorded herself singing childhood songs, broadcast in an empty Venetian tower.

There were many-breasted creatures, beautifully carved marble hands, things that were sexual and strange and filled with secrets and barely suppressed violence.

 

Refusing to describe herself as a feminist, she was one anyway. She has lessons for all artists alive now – inpersistence, commitment and individuality, and in the difference between art made as an adjunct to a career, and art borne out of inner necessity.

 

Bourgeois made great work and bad work, and didn't care to choose. She even published her insomniac bedside drawings.

"My memories are moth-eaten", she wrote recently, in a crabby hand, next to a beautiful, abstract drawing. We have lost a great artist, but the art goes on.

 

... criatividade... de luto!!!... Sherpas!!!...

 

{#emotions_dlg.confused}{#emotions_dlg.mad}{#emotions_dlg.sad}{#emotions_dlg.cry}{#emotions_dlg.confused}{#emotions_dlg.mad}{#emotions_dlg.sad}{#emotions_dlg.cry}{#emotions_dlg.sad}{#emotions_dlg.cry}

 

Adrian Searle is the Guardian's art critic.

Pág. 2/2

Mais sobre mim

foto do autor

Subscrever por e-mail

A subscrição é anónima e gera, no máximo, um e-mail por dia.

Pesquisar

Links

Os meus links

Arquivo

    1. 2019
    2. J
    3. F
    4. M
    5. A
    6. M
    7. J
    8. J
    9. A
    10. S
    11. O
    12. N
    13. D
    1. 2018
    2. J
    3. F
    4. M
    5. A
    6. M
    7. J
    8. J
    9. A
    10. S
    11. O
    12. N
    13. D
    1. 2017
    2. J
    3. F
    4. M
    5. A
    6. M
    7. J
    8. J
    9. A
    10. S
    11. O
    12. N
    13. D
    1. 2016
    2. J
    3. F
    4. M
    5. A
    6. M
    7. J
    8. J
    9. A
    10. S
    11. O
    12. N
    13. D
    1. 2015
    2. J
    3. F
    4. M
    5. A
    6. M
    7. J
    8. J
    9. A
    10. S
    11. O
    12. N
    13. D
    1. 2014
    2. J
    3. F
    4. M
    5. A
    6. M
    7. J
    8. J
    9. A
    10. S
    11. O
    12. N
    13. D
    1. 2013
    2. J
    3. F
    4. M
    5. A
    6. M
    7. J
    8. J
    9. A
    10. S
    11. O
    12. N
    13. D
    1. 2012
    2. J
    3. F
    4. M
    5. A
    6. M
    7. J
    8. J
    9. A
    10. S
    11. O
    12. N
    13. D
    1. 2011
    2. J
    3. F
    4. M
    5. A
    6. M
    7. J
    8. J
    9. A
    10. S
    11. O
    12. N
    13. D
    1. 2010
    2. J
    3. F
    4. M
    5. A
    6. M
    7. J
    8. J
    9. A
    10. S
    11. O
    12. N
    13. D
    1. 2009
    2. J
    3. F
    4. M
    5. A
    6. M
    7. J
    8. J
    9. A
    10. S
    11. O
    12. N
    13. D
    1. 2008
    2. J
    3. F
    4. M
    5. A
    6. M
    7. J
    8. J
    9. A
    10. S
    11. O
    12. N
    13. D
    1. 2007
    2. J
    3. F
    4. M
    5. A
    6. M
    7. J
    8. J
    9. A
    10. S
    11. O
    12. N
    13. D
    1. 2006
    2. J
    3. F
    4. M
    5. A
    6. M
    7. J
    8. J
    9. A
    10. S
    11. O
    12. N
    13. D